Fish farming: wealth under waterAs it is known, doctors recommend eating a rich in vitamins and minerals fish up to 6-8 kilograms per year. Hence, an increase in cultivation, processing and supply of fish products in several times will help to improve health of millions of people.
In Uzbekistan, mainly river fish, such as carp and catfish, are consumed. According to experts, fish is useful in cardiovascular diseases, increased blood cholesterol level, anemia, fatigue and physical exertion, neurosis, skin diseases, gout and rheumatism, reduced vision. As a result of consumption of fish dishes, children are prevented from such diseases as caries, hair loss, an increase in the thyroid gland.
According to statistics, almost 60 million people are working in the world fisheries sector. It accounts for 9 percent of exports. Fish is the most popular and at the same time perishable product, so its processing, preservation, packaging, storage and transportation require special attention. In Europe, North America, two-thirds of fish intended for consumption are supplied to consumers in frozen, ready or canned form. Africa often sells smoked, and Asia – live fish.
It should be noted that many people in our country have been skeptical about fish farming until recently. The opinion was expressed that expenses for it exceed the incomes, not to mention the troubles. However, progress has been made in the sphere due to the availability of sufficient water resources for the development of the sphere in our country and selflessness of the majority of entrepreneurs specialized in fish farming. Suffice it to say that this year Uzbekistan plans to grow 105 thousand tons of fish.
For example, there are over 180 fish farms in Surkhandarya region. In one of them – “Termiz agro fish export” agro firm – African catfish, carp are grown on the basis of Vietnamese technology. Fish breeders of Kashkadarya region are also showing special activeness: over 260 fish farms procured 4450 tons of dietary products last year. This year it is planned to bring this figure to 6175 tons.
925 tons of fish were grown last year in the limited liability company “Ulugnor balik” in Andijan region. Until the end of the year it is planned to receive 1200 tons of it.
– The motley fish, grown in our farm, weighs up to 8 kilograms, it is tasty and almost boneless, – says the head of the enterprise Abdusalom Ruzimatov. – Cultivation of the white amur is also giving positive results. Seaweed, such as a citron grows especially fast and develops in our reservoirs, which serves not only as a feed for the white amur, but also helps to maintain the purity of water. Recently, we began to grow Japanese carp as an experiment, which are in high demand abroad. They are tasty, resistant to cold and heat.
Legal basis – guarantee of development
In accordance with this document, “Uzbekbaliksanoat” (Uzbekistan fishing industry) association is established. There are 13 territorial limited liability companies of “Baliksanoat” in the regions. By January 1, 2023, they are exempt from payment of a single tax payment in the part of incomes received from the production of larvae, juveniles and commercial fish, preparation and processing of fish products. Cultivation of such species as African catfish, tilapia, trout, Hungarian carp and sturgeon will be established due to organization on a scientific basis of activities on acclimatization of highly productive fish species.
The main tasks of “Uzbekbaliksanoat” association are the creation of an organizational and technological chain for the production of fish products, reproduction of fish planting material and strengthening the forage base, rational use of natural and artificial water reservoirs’ resources, as well as introduction of scientifically based methods and intensive technologies in the process of growing fish.
In addition, Scientific experimental station for the development of fish culture has been transformed into Scientific research institute of fish culture in order to further improve scientific-research activities in the fishing industry, train scientific personnel, bring scientific and technical innovations to business entities. Its branches are opened in Aydar-Arnasay system of lakes and other regions of the republic.
– We are paying special attention to the study of advanced world experience, scientific achievements and innovations in the development of fish farming, – says the director of the Scientific research institute of fish culture Rukhillo Kurbonov. – In addition, valuable fish species adapted to cold water are bred in the mountainous areas. For example, trout, sturgeon, salmon will be grown in Tashkent region, the domestic market will be replenished with affordable and qualitative fish products in a wide range. It is gratifying that most of our entrepreneurs have begun to grow such import-substituting sea delicacies as shrimps and crayfish.
– We are growing fish together with “Eshon Ravot Balik” farm of Khiva district, – says Nguen Van Chi, director of the Vietnamese enterprise “Nguen Duc Chi”. – Activities has begun on the breakdown of the reservoir on 400 hectares. After equipping it with necessary devices, we will grow fish with the help of a new method. In the future, further strengthening cooperation, we want to take part in new projects.
Vietnam is the third largest exporter of fish in the world – by 7,1 billion dollars a year. Vietnamese technology consists in growing fry by an intensive method and dynamically launching them into reservoirs. At the same time, the consumption of mixed fodders is significantly less in comparison with the rate of development of fish, their resistance to negative hydro chemical reactions and diseases increases.
As a rule, 15-20 centners of fish are received on average from each hectare of the reservoir. This indicator can reach 400 centners as a result of application of Vietnamese technology. Cultivation of Asian catfish (pangasius) in Vietnam has turned into an entire industry. To date, this country accounts for 50 percent of Asian catfish grown in the world. After processing with the help of special technology, pangasius fillet in the package is exported to dozens of countries around the world.
– The head of our state during his visit to Khorezm region, became familiar with the project of our farm, gave valuable recommendations, – says Khaydarbek Ollaberganov, head of “Boltaboy oksokol” farm in Khiva. – Last year we supplied consumers with 490 tons of fish. Analyzing our activities, we started to grow and process fish according to Vietnamese technology in order to increase the efficiency.
There are no open reservoirs in the subsidiary fishing farm of Syrdarya thermal power station. Therefore, the fish here are fattened in closed rooms. And not just a fish, but a rare African catfish!
This breed differs in that it is able to breathe for 14-47 hours in the open air. It is productive, its fattening does not require a long time. For example, the minimum weight of one fish reaches one kilogram for eight months. You can grow up to 300 kilograms of African catfish in one cubic meter of water. African catfish develops rapidly in summer. It is resistant to dehydration, does not choose food, delicious and boneless.
– Our scientists are widely promoting an intensive method of fish farming development, – says the director of the Scientific research institute of fish culture Rukhillo Kurbonov. – In this case, fish are fattened in small reservoirs and indoor systems with a minimum water flow. With an intensive method, fish develops rapidly in small, compact pools and small flow ponds. Due to uniform temperature of water and distribution of oxygen, this makes it possible to grow fish in a short time.
Cultivation of fish in a cage with the help of an intensive method has many advantages, which can also be used by subjects of family entrepreneurship.
“Dolina Liana” enterprise has grown 100 tons of fish in 40 cages in the reservoir of Markaziy Fargona, received 132,2 million sums profit. This year the enterprise is planning to increase the number of cages to 90 and grow 270 tons of fish.
Based on the foregoing, we can say that this method has great opportunities and prospects. For example, in Vietnam, one family takes care of four cages. At the same time, from 3,5 to 4,5-5 tons of fish are obtained from one cage due to scientifically validated methods.
The results of activities on the development of fish culture are now can be seen in our markets. The abundance of fish products stabilizes their prices, contributes also to the growth of consumption of this dietary product by the population.
Sayyora Shoyeva, UzA